Eighth wonder: Russian radar

Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
Several years ago, planes landing at Sheremetyevo, made ​​while approaching the Moscow small hook, skirting some restricted area. If in our time, the curious traveler closely pressed against the porthole , between SOFRINO Pushkin in clear weather may notice a gigantic structure that resembles an unfinished pyramid of Cheops. In fact, it's quite unfinished, has no analogues in the world radar "DON-2H". For appearance, unique features and incredible value of the military is often called it the eighth wonder of the world

Hunters balls

a few years ago, says the chief designer of the radar Victor Sloka, in the framework of cooperation on missile defense program, Russia and America conducted a joint experiment ODERACS.
With American in space shuttle Discovery dumped metal balls target, and the most powerful in the world tried their radars to detect.
Pyatnadtsatisantimetrovye sphere spotted all. Balls with a diameter of 10 centimeters saw only three radar: Two Russian and American COBRA DANE radar in Alaska. Finally the ship threw two 5-inch ball. Found and built a miniature target trajectory just outside Moscow, "DON". "DON-2H" is the heart of Moscow's anti-missile system. Nothing like no one else in the world, America is only planning to create something similar. Plant construction took 32,000 tons of metal, 50,000 tons of concrete, 20,000 kilometers of cable, hundreds of kilometers of pipelines and 10,000 iron gates to them (for cooling equipment requires huge amounts of water). On each side, 130 meters (at the side of the pyramid of Cheops is 227 meters), the giant concrete structure located phased array antennas. In each lattice - 60,000 emitters. They work for ten years, continuously scanning the area around Moscow at a distance of 3700 kilometers. According to the developers, "DON-2H" must have worked for at least another thirty years.
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Phase shifters

A developed radiators and very grate 25 years Dmitry Zimin, then - deputy chief designer, now - founder of the "Bee Line". "Phased array - he explains the principle of the radar - is a way to get the beam to rotate at a fixed antenna." Reflectors traditional radar (radar) swinging on the turntables. An important advantage of a phased array radar - the ability to generate multiple beams. For example, "DON" can simultaneously track 30 targets. "The idea of ​​a phased array is not a new and clear - says Zimin. - To ensure that a fixed antenna beam to swing, you need to learn how to tilt the front of the field. " In conventional radar front strictly perpendicular to the emitter, and in order to steer the beam, it is necessary to rotate the antenna itself. If the antenna broken into thousands of small emitters, and to teach them to change the phase of a given algorithm, the plane wave can be put in any direction. In theory, such radars were calculated at the end of the Second World War, but in practice the idea rested on the extraordinary technological complexity of creation in the microwave range of managed environments. Was tried a lot of materials: ferrites, semiconductors and even plasma - has not yet found the right solution. Historically, the first such swing beam antennas are not constructed on the basis of phase shifters, but on the principle of frequency scanning. A small change in oscillator frequency caused by a change in phase and, consequently, a rapid swing beam. This is the most simple technology, and the first phased array radar operates on this principle. These radar antenna differed insufficient accuracy and monstrous in size, reaching a length of one hundred meters.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid

Look beyond the horizon

Prepared in 1972, the preliminary design of the national missile defense (NMD) has set up an early warning system, which was supposed to include the-horizon-horizon radar, and space assets. The-horizon radars, using the property of radio waves reflected from the ionosphere of the earth, from the territory of the USSR record starts in the United States. Placed on the satellite sensors had to check the infrared radiation from the exhaust of a rocket engine. These tools provide the maximum possible warning time. The-horizon radar performed a simple function: they confirmed flies whether we have something or not, and gave the signal for the return run. The system has reached its peak in the late 70s. With the collapse of the Union had lost radar Skrunda (Latvia), Sevastopol and Mukachevo (Ukraine), Balkhash (Kazakhstan), suspended work Mishlevke (near Irkutsk). Externally, these radars resemble well-known for the television footage in Skrunda radar. Now cover the territory of Russia three early warning radar - Pechora (Russia), Baranovichi (Belarus) and Gabala (Azerbaijan).
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Fourth - the Moscow Region "DON", in addition to closing the holes formed in the early warning system performs much more difficult task. It must be accompanied by small-sized high-speed target (warhead), throw decoys bypass interference and give the coordinates of the defeat. The problem is extremely complicated, that's why the most powerful supercomputer in the USSR "Elbrus" designed just for "DON" in the building it occupies almost floor. Inside the station is about a thousand cabinets only with electronic equipment. Since the task designers coped: "DON" allows you to define targets at distances of thousands of kilometers of optical precision. General Designer claims that his radar sees even a tennis ball flying over Europe at a rate of several thousand kilometers per hour. "That's just the problem itself is useless - sigh Zimin. - Each system has a finite bandwidth, it is at "DON". Suffice it to one extra goal - and no Moscow. By and large, the problem of missile defense in a massive raid - an unsolvable problem. Americans knew it, so they unfolded system to protect not the city, and launchers. After silos stand fantastic load: in order to disable them, you need a direct hit. That single unauthorized launches - yes. " For such purposes, and are now trying to create a global American missile defense system. After the meeting, Bush and Putin company Boeing, is responsible for the development of radar for the American program, refer to the engineers, "DON" to offer cooperation. What came out of it, we do not know. We can only say with certainty that the tennis balls over Europe until we can see only.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
For Moscow ABM system deployed 7 firing system, which include silo launchers of missiles protected sliding cover. Two complexes, 18 launchers each, armed with long-range interceptor missiles 51T6 "Azov", capable of destroying ballistic targets in near space at an altitude of about 120 km and at a distance of 350 km.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
Five new launch systems deployed around the Ring Road and include the amount of 64 silo launchers of missile defense interceptors 53T6 "Cupid." Which have no analogues in the world two-stage solid-fuel missile capable of hitting ballistic targets at altitudes up to 30 km and at a distance of 100 km. In interceptors used thermonuclear warhead capacity of 1 MT, which allowed to shoot on a "cloud" of true and false targets. According to estimates by the American physicist Ralph Lapp, the explosion of the charge of such power would ensure the destruction of warheads, which has no special protection from the soft X-rays within a radius of about 2 km from the explosion site. Fireball from the explosion missile will have a diameter of 2200 m and a burn time of 10 seconds. According to specialists, while undermining the warhead at a low altitude immediately die up to 10% of the population of the capital, an electromagnetic pulse will be knocked out all the power system in the region, landline networks, and command and control channels, plutonium-239 will be infected 200 m. km. According to the developers, "DON-2H" for the time being missiles with thermonuclear warheads are not on duty.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
And now let's take a look inside the pyramid.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
Construction takes a few floors below ground. Under the conditions of the enemy's use of weapons of mass destruction radar can exist completely independently. There is a shelter with a supply of food and water and air purification systems and autonomous power supply. In the underground hall radar can fit a column of trucks.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid

Positions of combat duty on the radar.

Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
The main hall of the command post. The screens projected maps and information about the detected objects.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
Stationary multifunction radar "Don-2N" in the Pushkin district, Moscow region.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
Map is divided into four parts, respectively, toward the station.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
According to various reports, the station "Don-2N" may be accompanied by up to hundreds of objects and to direct them to a few dozen missiles. One shift operators of the plant consists of one hundredpeople .
If there is a missile launch, the satellites of our first-tier register it. Then the radar starts tracking their flight over the Arctic Ocean, and will bring them missiles. Without undermining the harm to people can occur at altitudes of up to 6 kilometers. Even if the whole country affected, will be a chance for salvation Moscow.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
The command post of the radar for controlling equipment and plant equipment and control her condition.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
One of the four phased arrays (PAR) radar. Here, the emitter 72 of microwaves, one of them is pulled out. They are cooled by flowing water and compressed air.
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Running on rails design allows to change the elements of the system.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid
Right from the antenna has a number of replacement radiators.
Russia, weapons, technology, pro, radar, radar, pyramid

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